The Economy Ministry reported that Mexico took in $2,4831.7 million in FDI inflows from January to September 2021, a 5.7% year-on-year increase.

As usual, this statistic compares raw numbers and is later adjusted as there is more information about the operations of the corresponding periods.

“The above shows a recovery in foreign direct investment flows, in line with the positive global trend, according to the latest data issued by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD),” the Ministry of Economy said in a statement.

For similar periods, this was the third highest amount looking at online registrations, since 1999, surpassing it by 2013 ($28.2 billion) and 2019 ($26.1 billion) levels.

Just looking at the third quarter of this year, incoming FDI into Mexico amounted to $5.446 million, of which $3.539 million corresponds to new investments; 333 million for reinvestment and 1574 million for intercompany accounts. The total number compares to a collapse of 1.279 million in the same period in 2020, already updated.

Globally, the increase in FDI inflows in the first two quarters of 2021 restored more than 70% of the loss caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

According to UNCTAD, these inflows in the first half of this year amounted to an estimated $852 billion, which indicates a stronger-than-expected recovery momentum.

More broadly, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) released an updated forecast in September 2021, which estimated that global economic growth would slow 3.4% in 2020, but also projected that the global economy would grow at an annual rate of 5.7% in 2021 and 4.5 % in 2022, assuming continued strong support from macroeconomic and accommodative monetary policies.

In Mexico, the initial FDI recorded in January-September 2021 came from 3,259 companies with foreign capital participation, 3,721 credit contracts and 23 foreign legal entities.

By type of investment (financing source), the acquisition of foreign direct investment through dividend reinvestment was 40.3%, followed by new investments (38.4%) and inter-company accounts (21.3%).

By sector, manufacturing accounted for 45.0% coverage, before mining (14.0%); Financial and insurance services (10.9%); transport (10.0%); Trade (6.0%) and temporary housing services (4.6%). The remaining sectors accounted for 9.5 percent.

As for the country of origin, the United States reached 49.6%, followed by Spain (10.7%), Japan (6.3%), Germany (5.3%), and Canada (5.2%); Other countries contributed the remaining 22.9%.

Total investment, stagnant

In contrast to the positive performance of foreign direct investment, among the largest economies in Latin America, Mexico is, by far, the lagging behind in revitalizing private investment after the critical phase of the economic crisis due to the Covid-19 epidemic.

During the first half of the year, total fixed investment (IFB) in Mexico was 12.2% lower than what was observed during the same period in 2019, according to calculations based on figures reported by the National Institute of Geography and Statistics.

In terms of recovery, Brazil leads, with a 19% advance for FIFA compared to the first half of 2019, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE).

Followed by Peru with an expansion of 15.2%, and Argentina with a growth of 11.2%; Colombia (+2%) and Chile (+0.6%).

The above, according to figures published by the Central Reserve Bank of Peru, the Statistics and Census Institute of the Argentine Republic (Indec), the Department of National Statistics of Colombia (Dane), and the Central Bank of Chile.




Nokia has upgraded a 5G equipment testing facility in Guadalajara, Mexico that it says will support both Latin America and North America.

The Finnish telecom vendor called out the unique location of the lab and the free trade agreement between U.S., Mexico and Canada that makes it easier for goods and services to flow between the three countries.

The lab has already been operating for five years and works closely with Nokia design facilities in Dallas, Texas and Naperville, Illinois. The facility in Mexico has conducted hardware testing including 3G, 4G, and 5G. It also performs testing for product change notification, mechanical analysis, mechanical first article inspection, digital data and power supply analysis, and realistic performance monitoring.

One focus of the upgrade is to support testing across new 5G use cases. In addition to new 5G products the Guadalajara location will serve as support for increased sales and supply chain operations in the region.

“Following excellent results in its four years of operation, we chose to increase our investment in Guadalajara. The lab is located at a unique geographical position to provide services to both Latin America and North America,” said Raúl Romero, head of Nokia LAT North Region and country senior officer for Mexico, in a statement. “Additionally, our 5G deployments coming soon in Mexico and Latin America region will be fully supported by our own regional operations and supported as well by the free trade agreement between the U.S., Mexico and Canada (USMCA).”

RELATED: Nokia profits jump in Q3 amid chip shortage, mobile networks decline

Pedro Rayas, portfolio maintenance and supply chain manager for Mexico at Nokia, in the announcement said that the lab completes performance tests that ensure Nokia products meet a variety of national and international standards.

“Those operations require highly trained professionals and Guadalajara’s position as Mexico’s Silicon Valley assures that we will have access to the specialized technology and telecom professionals required to staff the lab,” said Rayas. “We are very happy to increase our investment in Mexico, to show our commitment to our customers, provide excellent job opportunities and training for our team, while expanding the nation’s 5G influence.”

In the third quarter Nokia reported net sales of EUR 260 million (around $293 million) in Latin America, a 7% increase from Q3 of 2020. North America sales were up 9% to EUR 1.8 billion, although mobile networks saw a decline. According to Nokia, its investment and footprint in Latin America is increasing with more than 3,700 employees working across 14 countries.

RELATED: Nokia CEO aims to catch next wave of 5G investment

The move comes as global supply chain issues inched into the radio access network (RAN) market in the last quarter. On Tuesday Dell’Oro Group released a report that found while ongoing shortages impacted the RAN market in the third quarter it’s still seeing positive momentum.

“The RAN market remains on track for a fourth consecutive year of robust growth, underpinned by healthy demand for connectivity,” said Dell’Oro analyst Stefan Pongratz in a statement. “At the same time, more challenging comparisons combined with increased risks surrounding the supply chain will weigh on the market in 2022.”

The firm’s preliminary estimates indicate the 2G-5G RAN market saw year over year growth for the seventh quarter in a row in Q3. In 2022 it projects total RAN revenues to increase 3%, after two years that saw double-digit growth.

RELATED: Dell’Oro expects RAN market to grow 10-15% in 2021

Pongratz told Fierce the 5G lab upgrade by Nokia appears to be about gearing up for new use cases and the coming 5G ramp in the Latin America region more than addressing short-term supply constraints.

“When it comes to addressing semiconductor supply chain disruptions, I think everyone is making all the preparations they can including adding more sources to the AVL, enhancing relationships with leading suppliers, and building safety stock where possible to minimize impact from price fluctuations and excessive lead-times,” Pongratz said.

According to Dell’Oro, Nokia looks to have been in the No. 2 position among the top 5G RAN suppliers outside of China in the last quarter, alongside competitors Ericsson and Samsung, and No. 3 globally.

Nokia opted not to quantify the impact of component shortages on sales during its third quarter presentation, but CEO Pekka Lundmark categorized it as meaningful and increasing. Along with semiconductor demand far outpacing supply, he noted unprecedented component cost inflation in the industry. Ericsson also started to see a squeeze on individual components in Q3 that resulted in the loss of some sales and higher inventory in the quarter. The Swedish vendor expects supply chain issues to likely impact Q4.

Via fiercewireless


Many firms are eyeing regional networks to replace globe-circling supply chains

The pandemic caught Stanley Black & Decker midway through an overhaul of its 18-country supply chain.

Executives at the toolmaker’s New Britain, Conn., headquarters already had shifted most production of heavy-duty industrial products closer to customers in the United States and Europe. But efforts to do the same with Stanley’s popular hand tools were unfinished when the coronavirus pandemic began disrupting global commerce.

This year, as ports grew clogged, Stanley saw its freight bills jump by a factor of seven, endured months-long shipping delays and scrambled to obtain computer chips for its power drills, saws and sanders. Earlier this month, the company had shipping containers stranded on 50 ships anchored off the Southern California coast.

Spurred by the pandemic, Stanley is moving on multiple fronts to strengthen its supply lines. Executives in charge of its tools business accelerated plans for two new factories in Mexico and one in Fort Worth. They locked in future supplies of lithium-ion batteries for power tools by funding dedicated production capacity at U.S. and Taiwanese suppliers and stockpiled an extra $1 billion in products.

“With the pandemic, it really has radically shaken the supply chain,” said Don Allan, Stanley’s chief financial officer. “It does drive home the importance of our strategy of getting closer to where we sell. The more you can minimize the amount of time your product is in transit, the better off you’re going to be.”

The toolmaker’s strategy illustrates how corporations are responding to the pandemic with some of the most consequential supply line makeovers since the onset of globalized production roughly three decades ago.

Many companies are using a variety of temporary solutions to try to navigate the current crisis. Eaton, an industrial manufacturer, dispatched its own experts to work alongside suppliers. Colgate Palmolive used more costly airfreight to ship its toothpaste and toothbrushes. And, Walmart chartered its own ships to circumvent backlogs.

As the disruptions persist, executives are embracing more lasting measures, moving production to new suppliers or different countries and relaxing their traditional fixation with low costs. But what they are not doing is equally important: There is no sign of any wholesale return of jobs to the United States. U.S. corporations remain believers in globalization, importing more than $2 trillion of industrial parts, raw materials and consumer goods each year from suppliers they regard as best suited to produce them.

The shifts that are occurring cap four years of supply chain volatility, including the Trump administration’s trade wars, a once-in-a-century health crisis and increasingly frequent natural disasters on multiple continents.

“Supply chains used to be sort of very immobile, black boxes, quite set in stone,” said Sebastien Breteau, chief executive of QIMA, which conducts worldwide factory inspections and audits for major retailers. “We’ve seen the supply chain become a lot more dynamic. And we see people having to adapt almost in real time.”

In some cases, manufacturers such as General Electric are even redesigning their products to eliminate dependence upon vulnerable sources of parts and materials. At Honeywell, where “tiger teams” track supply shortfalls on a daily basis, engineers have tweaked the company’s sensors and fire control systems to use more readily available computer chipsets, executives said on a recent earnings call.

To insulate itself against future supply surprises, Honeywell is developing a dual-source strategy for some products and signing longer-term deals with key suppliers.

“We’re going to have to deal with some supply chain challenges that are here, they’re real, they’re probably understated in the market,” Darius Adamczyk, Honeywell’s CEO, said on an earnings call last month. “It’s only recently that it’s been realized how severe they are.”

Soaring freight costs and unpredictable deliveries undermine the logic of ocean-spanning supply lines as well as the dominant production theory of the past generation, which called for parts to arrive at factories “just in time” to be assembled into finished goods.

Amid congested ports, trucker shortages and rail yard delays, it now takes Stanley almost 90 days to get its products from factories in China to U.S. stores — three times as long as before covid-19, Allan said.

Bringing a standard shipping container full of clothes, toys, furniture or industrial components from China to Los Angeles now costs $18,730, more than 13 times the pre-pandemic price, according to the Freightos index. Long-distance trucking costs have risen 27 percent over the same period, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics said

“Manufacturers who have complex products, they are scrambling for parts. They are scouring distributors. They are escalating with their suppliers every day, saying ‘I need more of these,’ ” said Willy Shih, a professor at Harvard Business School. “There is also a lot more stockpiling of parts, more ‘just in case, I’m going to carry a little more inventory.’ But when people order extra for ‘just in case,’ it’s actually making the shortages worse.”

Breaking a globe-circling supply chain into regional networks is emerging as a popular response. Construction companies on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border expect to benefit from this trend of “near shoring” production with orders for new factories or warehouses.

“We think that’s going to be a nice little bump for us, probably late ‘22, early ‘23,” Joseph Cutillo, CEO of Sterling Construction in Houston, told investors earlier this month.

Likewise, Cemex, the Mexican construction giant, said in July that it was capitalizing on the shift of manufacturing and industrial capacity from China to Mexico. The cement and building products producer already is benefiting from the construction of new warehouses near the U.S. border, executives said.

Today, about 40 percent of the Stanley tools purchased by Americans are made in the United States or Mexico. Allan wants to get that figure closer to 70 percent over the next two years.

But bringing work back from overseas doesn’t mean many jobs will come along. The new Fort Worth plant is “virtually 100 percent automated manufacturing,” needing just a couple hundred workers rather than the 1,000 required in an Asian facility, Allan said.

Few companies are abandoning globalized supply channels entirely or shifting a significant number of jobs back to the United States. The volume of merchandise trade exceeds the pre-pandemic peak and is expected to grow by almost 11 percent this year, according to the World Trade Organization.

Labor cost and availability in the United States remains a high hurdle for repatriating manufacturing work. And even a 100 percent American supply chain this year would have been vulnerable to interruption from domestic upheavals, such as the aftermath of an unusual cold snap in Texas, which disrupted petrochemical production, or wildfires that damaged railroad bridges.

“We are not seeing any dramatic move to reshoring because it has not really been distance that has been the issue during the pandemic,” said Soren Skou, CEO of Maersk, one of the world’s top cargo carriers and thus a principal beneficiary of global supply lines. “If you nearshore, and you put a factory in Mexico instead of China or you put a factory in Eastern Europe instead of China, that factory can still be hit just as easily in a pandemic scenario as if it’s based in China.”

Indeed, imports have grown faster than the U.S. economy since the start of 2019, reflecting a continued reliance on foreign sources of both industrial components and consumer goods. Through September, the United States imported nearly $2.1 trillion worth of goods, according to the Census Bureau, a product surge that helps explain the chronic congestion at ports, terminals and rail yards.

More goods are coming to the United States, and they are coming from more places.

Even before the pandemic, years of tariffs and geopolitical tensions had prompted many companies to diversify their goods and materials sourcing by adopting a “China-plus-one” strategy.

As a share of total imports, Chinese goods have fallen from almost 21 percent in 2019 to 17.5 percent through the first nine months of this year. Vietnam over the same period nearly doubled its share of U.S. imports. Countries such as India and Indonesia also grew in importance.

But there are no perfect defenses against supply interruptions.

When Vietnamese factories closed this summer to battle fresh coronavirus outbreaks, Deckers Outdoor, which relies on the Southeast Asian nation for a majority of its footwear output, was forced to scramble. The maker of UGG, Hoka and Teva brand footwear had just 10 percent of its production in the hardest hit southern region and shifted production to other factories that were still open.

But widespread supply bottlenecks meant that more than twice as much of the company’s inventory was in transit at the end of September, compared with a typical year.

To gird against future interruptions, Deckers has secured additional production space in “new geographic locations” and signed up new suppliers, Steven Fasching, the company’s chief financial officer, said in late October. The company also plans to carry more inventory to meet expected demand and as a hedge against inflation.

Spencer Shute, a supply chain consultant with Proxima in Boston, said he expects companies to emerge from the pandemic with a “hybrid” model, blending elements of traditional just-in-time operations with the more cautious and costly “just-in-case” approach.

“It’s an unrealistic goal to think there will never be any type of disruption to their supply chain,” Shute said. “What’s realistic is to be able to react quickly.”


fashion supply chain

Major clothing and shoe companies are moving production to countries closer to their U.S. and European stores, smarting from a resurgence in cases of the Delta variant of the novel coronavirus in Vietnam and China that slowed or shut down production for several weeks earlier this year.

The disclosures come amid a massive shipping logjam that is driving up costs and forcing companies to rethink their globe-spanning supply chains and low-cost manufacturing hubs in Asia..

The latest example is Spanish fashion retailer Mango, which told Reuters on Friday it has “accelerated” its process of increasing local production in countries such as Turkey, Morocco and Portugal. In 2019, the company largely sourced its products from China and Vietnam. Mango told Reuters that it would “considerably” expand the number of units manufactured locally in Europe in 2022.

Brazil, Mexico gain

Similarly, U.S. shoe retailer Steve Madden on Wednesday said it had pulled back production in Vietnam and had shifted 50% of its footwear production to Brazil and Mexico from China, while rubber clogs maker Crocs said last month it was moving production to countries including Indonesia and Bosnia.

Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania, the Czech Republic, Morocco, and Turkey were some of the countries drawing new interest from clothing and shoe producers, though China continues to produce a large share of the apparel for U.S. and European clothing chains.

“We are seeing a lot of growth in freight and trucking activity in the former Soviet Republics… a big rise in Hungary and Romania,” said Barry Conlon, chief executive of Overhaul, a supply chain risk management firm.

In Turkey, apparel exports are expected to reach $20 billion this year, an all-time high, driven by a spike in orders from the European Union, Turkey’s Union of Chambers Clothing and Garment Council data showed. In 2020, exports hit $17 billion.

Business boom in Bosnia

In Bosnia & Herzegovina, exports of textiles, leather, and footwear amounted to 739.56 million marka ($436.65 million) in the first half of 2021, which was higher than for all of 2020.

“Many companies from the European Union, which is our most important trading partner, are looking for new suppliers and new supply chains in the Balkan market,” said Professor Muris Pozderac, secretary of the association of textile, clothing, leather, and footwear in Bosnia & Herzegovina.

In Guatemala, where Nordstrom significantly shifted its private-label volume production in 2020, clothing exports were a touch over $1 billion as of the end of August, up 34.2% from 2020 and even 8.8% higher than in 2019.

To be sure, many companies are also still heavily reliant on Vietnam, where recent production stoppages have caused significant disruptions. Vietnam’s government said in October that it will fall short of its garment exports target this year, by $5 billion in a worst-case scenario, due to the impacts of coronavirus restrictions and a shortage of workers.

Via the hindu

La selección del destino de inversión de cualquier proyecto industrial ya sea expansión, reubicación y/o consolidación, es el resultado de un análisis que muestra la suma de los factores clave para la operación de la empresa.

Al llevar a cabo cualquier transacción de bienes y raíces: un arrendamiento, una compra-venta y/o un proyecto de construcción a la medida; Existen factores generales a evaluar como la ubicación, los precios, la disponibilidad de mano de obra y la calidad de vida en cada una en las plazas que compiten por el proyecto. 

Sin embargo, es importante recalcar que cada proyecto que se gesta dentro de las organizaciones tiene una identidad singular y por tanto, necesidades únicas a cumplir para poder hacer de la nueva ubicación un centro de utilidades.

El análisis que proviene del área de operaciones es fundamental. Es necesario comprender cuál es el origen del proyecto ya sea un nuevo contrato que se ha ganado recientemente y que exige cercanía al cliente final;  la llegada de nuevas líneas de producción que generan la necesidad de espacio adicional para el almacenamiento de la nueva maquinaria y la que se va reemplazando; una nueva planta industrial derivada del crecimiento del negocio; la consolidación de diferentes puntos de producción y almacenes bajo un solo techo con la finalidad de hacer más  eficiente la operación, o bien una nueva inversión en el país con la finalidad de entrar y posicionarse en el mercado.

Cada uno de los escenarios anteriores requiere que el equipo de Brokerage  realice una profunda evaluación del mercado y de la situación actual del cliente,  que les permita a los tomadores de decisiones la elaboración de un caso de negocios que contenga la siguiente información:


  • Las diferencias existentes al operar en las distintas regiones del país una planta de producción y/o almacén, por ejemplo: la frontera vs. la región bajío o el sur.  Estas pueden ser identificadas a través de un estudio que identifique claramente los costos de producción, aspectos clave de logística para el proyecto, las tendencias del mercado de bienes raíces y los aspectos de calidad de vida en cada una de las plazas.

  • Las oportunidades y retos existentes en cada una de las plazas de acuerdo con el ciclo de mercado que atraviesan, es decir; actualmente hay algunos mercados como Tijuana en los que la disponibilidad de Tierra y la disponibilidad de inventario es escasa, mientras que la Región del Bajío experimenta la situación contraria, generando que la alta oferta ofrezca para los usuarios/inversionistas precios sumamente competitivos y la posibilidad de elegir entre edificios existentes o construir uno nuevo.

  • Otro factor decisivo son los actores clave del mercado en cada una de las plazas, tanto del lado de los bienes raíces (oferta) como del lado de operaciones (clientes potenciales, competencia, etc.) con la finalidad de identificar las estrategias y acciones que deberán implementarse para llevar a cabo el proyecto.

  • El costo total de ocupación; este puede ser determinante para la toma de decisiones, sabemos que todo buen estudio de proyecto deberá culminar con un análisis financiero que refleje de manera clara además del monto total de inversión, el costo que representará para el usuario/inversionista la apertura y/o reubicación de su nuevo centro de operaciones, almacenaje y/o distribución.

Toda la información obtenida de los puntos mencionados no debe ser tomada de manera aislada, sino que deberá integrar un análisis profundo que alineado a los planes de la compañía dará como resultado un escenario óptimo para la evaluar y determinar el mercado de mi nuevo proyecto industrial.


Si actualmente tu compañía está evaluando algún proyecto de expansión, reubicación y/o consolidación @Fernanda Martínez y @Luis Miguel Torres pueden ayudarte a realizar tu evaluación a través de un análisis de selección y sitio. 

Arrendadores y arrendatarios haciendo un buen trato

¿Qué aspectos considerar al renovar y/o establecer un nuevo contrato de arrendamiento?


La eficiente administración del portafolio de los activos fijos debería ser parte fundamental de la estrategia a largo plazo dentro de las corporaciones; los beneficios de hacerlo son de gran impacto no sólo al enfrentarse a la firma o renovación de arrendamiento sino también en las finanzas de quienes poseen o administran un activo fijo.

La conciencia sobre del estado de las propiedades de la organización es lo que permite a las corporaciones garantizar el mejor uso de los activos (naves industriales de manufactura y/o almacén, terrenos y edificios de oficinas) así como optimizar el valor de las inversiones realizadas. Esto implica actualizar los valores en libros de los activos tomando en cuenta las depreciaciones o plusvalías que el mercado y las condiciones de los bienes generen sobre los activos de la compañía,

Sin embargo, dado el entorno actual del mundo de los negocios regido por la globalización, los procesos de fusiones, adquisiciones y alianzas estratégicas entre sociedades nacionales e internacionales, las compañías integran equipos multiculturales de trabajo, ubicados en diferentes países y cuya estructura en ocasiones dificulta el conocimiento total del número de activos que posee el grupo en cuestión.

Entonces, ¿Cómo iniciar?

Las siguientes son algunas acciones que pueden marcar la diferencia en la administración de activos al interior de la compañía:

  • Realizar un inventario de todos activos que incluye el portafolio de bienes y raíces es un primer paso para iniciar un plan estratégico de administración y gestión de las naves, terrenos y oficinas.
  • Identificar los arrendamientos vigentes le permitirá a la compañía realizar auditorias sobre éstos, buscando homologar las prácticas comerciales. 
  • Crear y mantener actualizadas bitácoras del estado de las propiedades, así como las mejoras realizadas durante la vida de los contratos.

En el caso de las renovaciones será vital poner atención en los siguientes aspectos para lograr una negociación exitosa:


  • Estado Actual de la Propiedad: 
  • ¿Qué actividades de mantenimiento es necesario realizar para lograr la mejor operación del activo? Algunas de las más comunes son: re-encarpetamiento del estacionamiento, reemplazo de los tragaluces del techo, pintura interior y exterior, ampliación del área de oficinas y/o del almacén, etc. Una vez identificados todos los trabajos a realizar, será necesario realizar un presupuesto.
  • Revisión del Contrato de Arrendamiento: para identificar los derechos vigentes que se tienen, principalmente los derechos de prórroga así como las condiciones de precio e incrementos pactados.
  • Situación Actual del Mercado: un estudio profundo del mercado actual sentará la bases para la negociación de los términos y condiciones a pactar.

Conocer la oferta actual disponible, así como el análisis financiero de los costos para una reubicación son los factores indispensables para poder lograr una buena negociación.

Es importante considerar los puntos antes mencionados, además de enlazar las necesidades de la compañía con las propuestas de todos sectores involucrados en el proceso, sin perder de vista las diferencias socio -culturales entre ellos. 

Por estas y otras razones es que los Brokers, son de gran utilidad; ya que son responsables de facilitar el proceso de negociación dentro de los grupos y corporaciones, cuentan con toda la información necesaria para lograr un buen trato y tienen vasta experiencia tratando con los desarrolladores y propietarios locales.

En NAI Mexico, contamos con profesionales en los mercados más importantes del mundo que están dispuestos a ayudar a facilitar tus procesos de arrendamiento, renovaciones, expansiones y fusiones.

¿Su compañía atraviesa algún proceso como estos?

Si deseas conocer más sobre un proceso el proceso de renovación de los arrendamientos puedes contactar a Fernanda Martínez.



Diversifying the sourcing portfolio from China (either nearshoring or offshoring) will help address challenges, whether in supply chain, logistics or availability of raw materials.


China’s supremacy as the global production hub for several industries such as medical devices, electronics, automotive and textile was unchallenged until sometime back. The key factors were easy availability of raw materials, business-friendly laws, technological innovations and access to skilled and cheap labor. However, the scenario changed in 2019 due to increasing cost of labor and the U.S.-China trade war, which tarnished China’s image as a favorable center of production. The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic aggravated the situation.

Supply chain disruptions, such as shortage of raw materials due to plant shutdowns in China, increased the cost of manufacturing by pushing labor and shipping costs high and increasing lead times. Plus, amid the growing risk of intellectual property (IP) theft and declining tax incentives, companies either consolidated operations in their home country, expanded existing operations, explored nearshoring activities in Mexico or offshored operations to other Asian countries such as India and Vietnam. Many leading organizations in the mobile and electronics, automotive and medical devices industries have either started implementing their plans to partially shift supply chain to Mexico or are exploring this option followed by India and Vietnam.

Leading automotive, electronics companies shifting supply chain functions or expanding operations in Mexico, followed by India and Vietnam

Shift in supply chain. The shift of supply chain is already underway, as some leading electronics players are exploring Mexico as a production facility.

Following Mexico, India introduced the Production-Incentive Scheme for mobile phone manufacturing and electronics components, including assembly, testing, etc. This factor contributed to attracting some companies to set up manufacturing plants in India.

Vietnam is yet another preferred location for the manufacture of electronics parts.

Expansion of existing facilities. In addition to the shift in supply chain, leading automotive companies are planning to move production to Mexico. End-users, for instance, have already shifted or expanded their manufacturing operations to Mexico.

Electronics companies in Mexico too are keen on increasing their production lines for servers, lighting systems and cognitive services, respectively.

Geographic proximity, low-cost labor, lower logistics expenses and availability of raw materials are the key factors drawing large organizations to Mexico. The country also is taking initiatives to attract investors and increase foreign-direct investment (FDI) in different industries.

Factors supporting investments in Mexico vis-à-vis India and Vietnam

Mexico’s GDP stands at $1,076 billion, of which, $318 billion comes from the industrial sector, followed by the service and agriculture sectors. However, in India, the service sector is the major contributor, accounting for $1,413 billion, followed by the industrial sector at $618 billion. In Vietnam, the service sector is the major contributor to GDP.

The main manufacturing industries in Mexico are mechanical (stamping, smelting, forging, machining, plastic injection, die casting), automotive and electronics that have 77,071, 2,500 and 2,300 companies, respectively; together, they employ more than 2 million people.

The industrial sector in India, with its major sub-sectors such as mining, quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply, accounts for around 26% of the country’s GDP. It employs over 15-20% of the total workforce in India, and mainly caters to the iron and steel, cotton and textile, mechanical (smelting, forging, stamping, machining, die casting plastic injection), automotive and electronics industries.

On the other hand, in Vietnam, state-owned industries such as furniture, plastics, textiles and paper constitute the foundation of the economy. Even sectors like tourism and telecommunications contribute significantly to the economy. In 2020, these industries accounted for 34.5% of the GDP and employed 28% of the total workforce.

Overall, Mexico has a strong supply base that can ensure “just-in-time” delivery to consumers and distributors and provides end-users access to the South American market.

Trade (imports and exports). The United States is the most preferred export destination for Mexico, accounting for approximately 79% of total exports, followed by Canada, China, and others. Export of electronics and automotive components from Mexico to the United States increased over 2019-20, with electronic equipment exports rising 5-10% in this period. Also, in the last three years, by value (in metric tons), the import of automotive products to the United States from Mexico has increased by more than one-third.

Of the total exports from India to the United States, products such as medical appliances, leather goods and textiles account for more than 17%. The United States is also the major export destination for Vietnam.

Note: Trade data includes exports and imports of all products from Mexico, India, and Vietnam for the year 2019 and 2020.

Growth in FDI accompanied by strong government initiatives. In 2020, India was on the list of the Top 10 recipients of FDI, clocking $64 billion, up 27% from that the previous year. Major investment was in the manufacturing industry (18%), followed by service and computer software/hardware. Furthermore, the Indian government has now allowed 100% FDI in contract manufacturing in its bid to boost investments in manufacturing. In Vietnam, FDI decreased by 25% year-over-year to $28.5 billion in 2020; half of the investments were in processing and manufacturing.

FDI inflows to Mexico totaled nearly $30 billion in 2020. The top investing countries were the United States (39%), Canada (15%), and Spain (14%), followed by Japan, Germany, etc. Of the total investments in Mexico, 41% is directed toward the manufacturing sector, concentrated in industries such as aerospace, automotive and electronics. These established industries offer a strong supply chain, existing infrastructure and skilled labor.

Overall, Mexico is a preferred choice for companies looking to maintain competitive manufacturing costs while having regional distribution strategies to control inflation.

Availability of port infrastructure. On the Quality of Ports Infrastructure Index, Mexico ranks 65th, India 51st and Vietnam 85th among 139 countries.

The Indian government has permitted up to 100% FDI on port-related projects and even has a 10-year tax holiday for construction and maintenance of port projects. The government also spent $1.85 billion on infrastructure development at major ports in the country. Due to its geographical location, Vietnam offers easy connectivity with other Southeast Asian countries; this makes it an appropriate hub for manufacturing. Seven major ports dot its 1,900-km coastline, and currently about 400-500 million tons of cargo moves around this line annually.

Mexico has more than 100 major ports on a coastline of 9,330 km, with an annual capacity of nearly 300 million tons. In the last three years, road shipping volume from Mexico to the United States increased by 32%, mostly via Port Laredo in Texas. Inbound ocean freight volumes also increased from Mexico, mainly to Port Newark in New Jersey and Port Everglades in Florida.

Shipping rate from Mexico to the United States is the lowest as compared to from China, India, and Vietnam, which makes Mexico a favorable destination.

Aranca China Plus One Infographic1Aranca

Technology adoption and automation. On the Automation Readiness Index, Mexico ranks 23rd, Vietnam 24th and India 18th. Despite, gross expenditure on R&D (as a % of GDP) is at same levels for all three countries; Mexican industry is planning to accelerate digitalization and automating processes typical of Industry 4.0, which would raise the country’s GDP by 3% points.

The Indian government is finalizing plans to boost digital manufacturing in the country. Many organizations have already taken the initiative and invested in Industry 4.0 Center of Excellence. The Government of India is planning to develop land spanning 461,589 hectares (two times the size of Luxembourg) to invite businesses looking for alternative locations to China. Government-led initiatives such as Rapid Transformation Hub (SAMARTH) and Smart Advanced Manufacturing – Udyog Bharat 4.0 are also aimed at increasing the pace of digitalization.

Vietnam, too, has initiated the adoption of Industry 4.0; however, investments need to come from other countries such as Japan. A few companies, for instance, have undertaken automation-related initiatives in Vietnam, but other domestic companies are still lagging.

Aranca China Plus One Infographic2Aranca

Availability of raw materials. In Vietnam, raw materials are not always available easily and manufacturers in several industries rely on imports to produce goods. In fact, 75-80% of electronics components, 85-90% of pharmaceutical raw materials and 70-80% of textile and plastics raw materials come from China.

Comparatively, India has strong raw material production capacity. The country is the largest manufacturer of cotton and second-largest manufacturer of steel globally. Therefore, availability of raw materials is easy for various industries.

In Mexico, on the other hand, several raw materials produced locally are used in its domestic manufacturing sector; these include metals, minerals, resins, timber, gems, etc. Mexico is among the Top 10 producers of metals such as copper, silver, gold, lead and zinc worldwide. It has a large mining sector. Countries such as the United States, Canada, and several European nations import metals, minerals, ore and gemstones from Mexico. The country has abundant forests with different types of wood and naturally occurring fibers and resins. Companies signed up with the Maquiladora IMMEX program may enjoy the benefits of importing raw materials to Mexican manufacturers and consider sourcing Mexican material supply chains.

Companies believe that diversifying the sourcing portfolio from China (either nearshoring or offshoring) will help address challenges, whether in supply chain, logistics or availability of raw materials. Mexico, India, and Vietnam are undertaking initiatives and implementing policies that will facilitate their emergence as the new hub for manufacturing. From increasing adoption of technology to relaxation of FDI norms and implementation of reforms in land acquisition, the three are locked in a race to win the mantle. However, based on the factors mentioned above, and among the other up-and-coming sourcing hubs, Mexico is steadily catching up with the alternative sourcing giants in the world.





Earlier this month I was able to step out of the centralizing gravitational pull of Mexico City and travel to San Luis Potosí to attend an event organized by El Gran Bajío, a private sector-led investment promotion initiative that is just getting off the ground. I was pleasantly inspired, and let’s face it, inspiration is in short supply these days. The world faces multiple challenges and instead of returning to normalcy, we are collectively coming to the realization that we must adjust to permanently altered circumstances that include climate conditions, polarizing politics, and unrelenting technological advancement.

Mexico, like all countries, competes for investment and capital globally and the conditions that create competitiveness are not a mystery. Companies and investors need to reduce risk and optimize returns. Being next to the lucrative US market and having decades of experience as a major trading partner in North America gives Mexico a leg-up on the competition. The country stands to gain from nearshoring as companies reassess the China risk, but investment will not come without active promotion efforts, particularly given Mexico’s current challenges with respect to security and available low-carbon energy.

With the elimination of ProMexico – Mexico’s former publicly funded investment promotion body – coordinated efforts have lost force. But necessity being the mother of invention implies that this may not necessarily be a bad thing if Mexican businesspeople can devise the means and raise the funds to do the work of promotion themselves. From this springs the idea of the private sectors of states in the Bajío working together and finding strength in unity instead of conducting isolated efforts in competition.

El Gran Bajío brings together businesspeople in Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán, Querétaro, San Luis, and Zacatecas (together these states represent 26% of Mexican GDP) under one branded concept and in harmony with local and state governments. Note that this is not political, but practical, much like the spirit of the entrepreneurs that live in the Bajío. Happily, both Forbes and HSBC have decided to become involved in supporting the effort, which will no doubt encourage even more interest domestically and internationally.

El Gran Bajío hopes to also serve as a modernizing regional force that can assist companies to up their game with respect to new trends in ESG (Environment, Social and Governance). ESG considerations are now a central component to the analysis of the risks and rewards of any investment, and this is particularly important given that many of the leading companies in the region are family-owned and need to ensure their viability for the next generation. Putting in place governance plans that address environmental sustainability, gender diversity and transparency will be critical to establishing partnerships with counterparts abroad and to increasing the competitiveness of the Bajío region generally.

The Bajío is not starting from scratch and has had historical success in attracting domestic and foreign investment in the aerospace, automotive, and agricultural sectors, to name a few. Building on this foundation and moving beyond it by promoting innovation and entrepreneurship will be buttressed by the creation of an ecosystem that includes regional academic institutions, such as the Arkansas State University campus and Querétaro’s aerospace university (UNAQ). Further, a new cluster of data centers is under development in the region, spearheaded by companies like Microsoft, Cloud and ODATA.

It is comforting to see new initiatives surfacing at such a difficult moment globally where many countries and companies are analyzing what comes next. Laying the foundation today for success in the medium and long term is critical to ensuring sustainable prosperity in Mexico, a goal that goes well beyond any political cycle and will require the active participation of the private sector.

* Amy Glover is president of Agil(e) and an external advisor for El Gran Bajío project. Twitter: @chilangagringa
El Bajío cuenta con 157 parques industriales y busca convertirse en un referente para América Latina impulsando el pensamiento creativo en todas las industrias.

En los últimos 20 años, el Bajío mexicano ha mostrado su competitividad en diversas industrias como la aeroespacial, automotriz, biotecnología, investigación y educación, ante esto el proyecto El Gran Bajío, conformado por empresarios e innovadores de Querétaro, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas y Michoacán buscan posicionar a la región como una de las más importantes en América Latina.

“Y es que así como Silicon Valley impulsó el pensamiento exponencial, los nórdicos un pensamiento colaborativo y los japoneses un método de 5S, el Bajío se está convirtiendo en un referente del pensamiento creativo en Latinoamérica“, declaró Federico Quinzaños, Presidente y Fundador de El Gran Bajío en entrevista para Forbes México.

El proyecto El Gran Bajío busca impulsar un ecosistema de pensamiento e innovación para fortalecer el desarrollo de la región mexicana evolucionando a industrias como: la aeroespacial, farmacéutica, movilidad, energías limpias, tecnología y otras más, de la mano de empresarios, innovadores, ejecutivos de negocios y emprendedores.

“El tema de El Gran Bajío es cómo evolucionar a una nueva era; cómo evolucionar hacia un nuevo panorama de nuevas industrias porque estamos en una nueva era y tenemos que entender cómo hacer una transición de la industria automotriz a la industria de la movilidad; cómo sacar de las tecnologías de las tradicionales a la 2.4; de la aeronáutica a la aeroespacial, así como impulsar las industrias creativas y energías limpias”, añadió Quinzaños.

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Así mismo el directivo aseguró que si bien El Gran Bajío inició con el apoyo de empresarios ya se le han sumado innovadores, empresas globales, ejecutivos de negocios y startups formando un ecosistema con ejecutivos de todos los niveles e industrias que generen una nueva era para la región.

“Iniciamos con los grandes empresarios de la región pero se nos fueron sumando los innovadores que están facturando arriba de los 15 millones de dólares al año; son sólidos, están exportando y tienen alianzas en el extranjero y patentes. En un tercer nivel están las empresas globales y tenemos más de 4,400 en la región de 80 países que han decidido depositar su inversión aquí en El Bajío: es evidentemente que están viendo algo y la cuarta son los ejecutivos de negocios”.

Federico Quinzaños 2
25 de junio 2021. Foto: © Cortesía El Gran Bajío

Actualmente el Bajío cuenta con 157 parques industriales, 100 centros de investigación, más de 250 universidades, 76 viñedos, industrias consolidadas como la aeronáutica con 90 empresas, 800 firmas relacionadas con la industria automotriz y 12 armadoras de autos.

“El Bajío durante 20 años ha tenido una estrategia muy interesante de posicionamiento enfocada en crear y desarrollar. Se ha destacado contra otras regiones en México porque tiene un pensamiento creativo porque ha pasado de tener una producción y servicios muy básicos a generar industrias como la aeronáutica, automotriz y tecnología. Hoy tenemos 157 parques industriales, 100 centros de investigación, más de 250 universidades y 100 centros de alta especialización”.

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El Gran Bajío cuenta con cinco agencias internacionales para conectar proyectos y negocios nacionales con agencias globales, además de tener capacitación y guía por parte de Singularity University

Quinzaños agregó que actualmente Querétaro se ha enfocado en reforzar la industria aeroespacial, mientras que Aguascalientes ha optado por impulsar la industria de movilidad y en tanto, Guanajuato y San Luis Potosí se han centrado en el sector agroindustrial que está transitando hacia la biotecnología.

“Más que el tema de industrias El Gran Bajío tiene que ver con un tema de mentalidad: ¿cuál es la que estamos compartiendo? Hoy estamos impulsando el pensamiento creativo“, destacó Quinzaños.



China on Friday began in earnest work to advance its application to become a member of the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade deal, a day after filing a bid to join the pact in an attempt to increase its economic clout in the Asia-Pacific region.

Chinese accession would significantly impact trade in the region, and its bid is aimed at countering moves that the United States and other partners are pursuing to decouple from the Chinese economy. It remains uncertain, though, whether China will be allowed to join the pact.

To join the deal, formally known as the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, China will need the unanimous approval of all 11 member countries, including Australia and Japan. The United States withdrew from the pact in 2017.

In a speech on Friday, Chinese President Xi Jinping said high barriers that would harm growth of trade, investment and technology should be “removed,” pledging to take measures to push forward the free trade system.

Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said Chinese participation in the TPP would “contribute to promoting the process of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region” and encouraging “trade and investment growth” after the COVID-19 pandemic.

But one hurdle China faces is its strained ties with Australia.

In June, China said it had filed a complaint with the World Trade Organization over Australia’s anti-dumping tariffs, apparently retaliation against Canberra’s decision to complain to the WTO over China’s anti-dumping duties on wine exports.

Australia signaled Friday that it may not accept the start of talks on China’s possible participation, with the country’s minister for trade, tourism and investment, Dan Tehan, saying in a statement that existing members want to be confident that China has a “track record of compliance” with its commitments under the WTO and existing trade agreements.

The minister also reiterated the need for China to agree to restart ministerial-level talks between the two nations.

The other TPP members are Brunei, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam.

Japan, a leading economy in the TPP, said it will carefully analyze whether China is ready to meet the requirements for joining the free trade deal.

“We must thoroughly assess whether China is ready to fulfill the high-standard rules of the TPP-11,” Chief Cabinet Secretary Katsunobu Kato said, adding Tokyo will “consult with other members while following the procedures for approving new members.

The United States originally promoted the trade pact to counter China’s growing economic influence, but after withdrawing from the treaty in January 2017, the U.S. government, now under President Joe Biden, remains cautious about returning to it.

Following the application, a U.S. State Department spokesperson said in a statement, “We would expect that China’s non-market trade practices and China’s use of economic coercion against other countries would factor into” a decision over Beijing’s accession.

If China joins the TPP, the gross domestic product of participating economies would account for around 30 percent of global GDP, compared with over 10 percent currently. It would also mark a new milestone for the world’s second-biggest economy, similar to its accession to the WTO in 2001.

China’s bid to join the free trade bloc follows Britain’s application filed in February this year. Taiwan has also expressed interest in joining.

According to the Chinese Commerce Ministry on Thursday, Chinese Commerce Minister Wang Wentao and Damien O’Connor, New Zealand’s trade and export minister, spoke on the phone to discuss necessary procedures.

Compared with some advanced countries such as Japan, China falls behind in liberalizing market access while the Asian economic powerhouse also faces other obstacles, such as reforms of preferential treatment for state-run companies and state subsidies to meet the standards shared among TPP members.

Xi announced his country’s intention to seriously consider participating in the TPP when he attended an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum summit in November last year.

In July, during an informal virtual meeting with APEC leaders, he called for “integration, not decoupling,” according to Chinese media.